Carbon Alloy Synthesis Process (CASP)

The Cokonyx produced through CASP has been independently used in a commercial environment as a coke replacement without demanding any modifications from the end-user. This process can be made-to-suit in both application and capacity given a client’s demand. This adaptability is due to the modular approach to its engineering and process controls.

CASP’s strength lies in its versatility for its end users. Once a client identifies a raw material base suitable to their geographical region, Carbonyx can then customize a Cokonyx™ formula based on those raw materials coupled with variations in the process conditions to yield the desired properties. CASP empowers a client to reduce their dependency on the metallurgical coal market fluctuations by utilizing various other forms of carbon, including lower grades of coal.

An important aspect of the CASP process is its total departure from existing coke technologies. The Cokonyx produced by this process performs and looks similar to traditional coke, but the production facility cannot be mistaken for a traditional coke technology plant. The Cokonyx process does not use slot or beehive ovens. The process is continuous, not batch. This minimizes thermal cycling of equipment, optimizes throughput, and provides for a steady plant output.

Unlike conventional coke making, CASP operates on a continuous basis at a lower temperature thereby minimizing the need for expensive high temperature equipment and refractory. These benefits translate to an overall lower operating cost as well as lower capital expenditures when compared to traditional coking technologies.

The Cokonyx facility is highly scalable, and has been designed in a modular manner. The Cokonyx facility has been optimized to make use of commercially available equipment. Therefore, a basic CASP process facility is a module of approximately 250-350 ktpy, consisting of two lines of 125-175 ktpy each. Cost and operational efficiencies are afforded by combining the lines within the module into an integrated operation.

Furthermore, multiple modules are replicated to produce larger facilities of up to 1 million tpy at a single location. In each case the portions of the larger facilities are integrated for cost effectiveness.

The CASP process has been designed to produce Cokonyx of custom specifications. The facility includes several “disconnects” within the process. Throughout the process, storage silos and redundant equipment allow the plant functioning to continue despite the failure of localized equipment.

In summary, CASP offers the following advantages:

  • Flexibility in raw material usage
    • Reduced dependency on metallurgical coal
    • Adaptable to local raw material base
  • Reduced time and temperature processing conditions
  • Reduced operating costs
    • CASP is an autogenous process in terms of energy requirements. The thermal energy is provided by the utilization of evolved hydrocarbons while the electrical energy can be supported by a cogeneration system based on a combined cycle, waste heat recovery system.
  • Reduced capital expenditures
    • Limited refractory and high temperature equipment
  • Modular design allows for easy construction, operation, and expansion.
  • Customizable product
    • Cokonyx can be used 100% or blended with other cokes in a blast furnace. Deficiencies in the characteristics of existing cokes can be compensated for by manufacturing a complementary Cokonyx. Conversely, Cokonyx can be produced with otherwise deficient coal stock (i.e. high ash), and combined with low ash coke to produce an overall cost effective and furnace friendly blend of Cokonyx/coke.
  • Lower environmental emissions
    • CASP offers environmentally friendly advantages over traditional processes. Emissions are reduced, and facilities have been built that are well within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations for traditional coke-making plants of similar size.
  • Continuous process
ElementsCASPConventional Methods of Coke Making
Raw MaterialAdaptable to local coal and carbon source supplyDependent on coking/metallurgical coal supply
Process TypeContinuousBatch
Processing Time12-18 hours of residence time18-60 hours per batch
Processing Down TimeLimitedDependent on batch size
Energy RequirementRelatively low energy consumptionHigh energy consumption
EnvironmentalReduced NOx and greenhouse gases (permitted as a minor source in the U.S.)Permitted as a major source in the U.S.
Approximate Labor Requirements
(1 million tpy)
140 people200 people